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Global Economic Governance (Politics A-level): The causes of poverty

The articles on this page explore the seven theories of poverty and development that you study. As you read the articles, use the summary sheet below to organise your ideas about what the theory says, any linked case studies, how it attempts to explain poverty and/or guide development and the drawbacks of the theory.


The articles are divded into sections for each theory:

  1. North-South divide
  2. Classical/Neo-classical development theory
  3. Modernisation/ Orthodox theory
  4. Dependency Theory (1940s)
  5. World Systems Theory (1970s) (impact of globalization)
  6. Structual Theory
  7. (Neo)colonialism

 

North-South Divide

Resource Curse of the South

Article: Mutahi, B. & Mudibo, Z. (2021, January 27) Africa's free-trade area: What difference will it make? Retrieved from BBC News, Nairobi: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-55334345

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

 

Article with video: Tran, M. (2012, October 25) Are natural resources a blessing or a curse for developing countries? Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/oct/25/natural-resources-blessing-curse-developing-countries

 

The Guardian is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated MIXED for factual reporting (03/21).


North-South Divide

Factsheet: Royal Geographical Society with IBG. (n.d.) A 60 second guide to the Global North/South Divide. Retrieved from Royal Geographical Society: https://www.rgs.org/CMSPages/GetFile.aspx?nodeguid=9c1ce781-9117-4741-af0a-a6a8b75f32b4&lang=en-GB

 

The Royal Geographical Society is a UK professional body with resources aimed at schools and can be regarded as a reasonably unbiased source.


Five Fastest Growing Economies

Article: Bajpai, P. (2020, October 16) The five fastest growing economies in the World. Retrieved from Nasdaq: https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/the-five-fastest-growing-economies-in-the-world-2020-10-16

Nasdaq is one of the world's leading stock exchanges and can be regarded as a reasonably reliable source of financial information.


AIIB (Asian Rival to World Bank)

Video: Oi, M. (2016, June 24) What is the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank? Retrieved from BBC News: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/business-36606840

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

Classical/Neo-classical development theory

The IMF

Article: Master, J. & Chaztky, A. (2020, August 20) The IMF: The World’s Controversial Financial Firefighter. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations:https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/imf-worlds-controversial-financial-firefighter

The Council on Foreign Relations is a "nonprofit, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs" described as a LEAST BIASED source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


The World Bank

Article: Master, J. & Chaztky, A. (2019, April 9) The World Bank Group's role in Global development. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations:https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/world-bank-groups-role-global-development

The Council on Foreign Relations is a "nonprofit, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs" described as a LEAST BIASED source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


The World Trade Organzation

Article: Master, J., Chaztky, A. & Siripurapu, A. (2021, February 16) What's next for the WTO? Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations:https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/whats-next-wto

 

The Council on Foreign Relations is a "nonprofit, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs" described as a LEAST BIASED source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


The damage done by neoliberalism

Article: Stone, J. (2016, May 27) Neoliberalism is increasing inequality and stunting economic growth, IMF says. Retrieved from The Independent: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/neoliberalism-increasing-inequality-and-stunting-economic-growth-imf-says-a7052416.html

 

The Independent is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated MIXED for factual reporting (03/21).

Modernisation/Orthodox Theory

Asian Tigers

Video: Matt [ValiWorld] (2020, April 4) Economic Growth Miracle | The Four Asian Tigers | State Saturday. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IzrlG6ftxg

 

 ValiWorld is a very small channel with just 35 subscribers, run by 'Matt and Phil'. With no way to tell who they are or what their credentials are, this site should be treated with care and any claims verified elsewhere. However, on this occasion, this video has been recommended by Mr Farrar, who has considerable expertise and experience of this topic, so it is reasonable to assume that the content is accurate. However, this video should not be directly cited in academic work.


From Independence to Industrialisation

Article: Shirley, B. M. (2014, October 16) The Asian Tigers from Independence to Industrialisation. Retrieved from E-International Relations: https://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/16/the-asian-tigers-from-independence-to-industrialisation/

E-International Relations is a reputable academic source but states for this article: "This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. This work can be used for background reading and research, but should not be cited as an expert source or used in place of scholarly articles/books."


The Failings of Liberal Modernisation Theory

Article: Dunn, T. M. (2013, June 26) The failings of liberal Modernisation Theory. Retrieved from E-International Relations: https://www.e-ir.info/2013/06/26/the-failings-of-liberal-modernisation-theory/

E-International Relations is a reputable academic source but states for this article: "This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. This work can be used for background reading and research, but should not be cited as an expert source or used in place of scholarly articles/books."

Dependency Theory (1940s)

World Systems Theory, Dependency Theory and Global Inequality

Video: Then & Now (2016, June 11) World-Systems Theory, Dependency Theory and Global Inequality. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=79gCqjl6ihQ

 

 Then and Now is a popular YouTube channel with 104K subscribers, which posts weekly videos on Politics, Art, History and Philosophy. However, no information is given about the creators and it is impossible to verify their credentials. This site should be therefore be treated with care and any claims verified elsewhere. However, on this occasion, this video has been recommended by Mr Farrar, who has considerable expertise and experience of this topic, so it is reasonable to assume that the content is accurate. However, this video should not be directly cited in academic work.


The Wealth of Africa

Article: Monks, K. (2018, January 2) Why the wealth of Africa does not make Africans wealthy. Retrieved from CNN: https://edition.cnn.com/2016/04/18/africa/looting-machine-tom-burgis-africa/index.html

CNN is a LEFT-BIASED source, rated MIXED for factual reporting, however articles are rated more highly for factual accuracy than the TV reporting (03/21).


Making iPhones

Article: Merchant, B. (2017, June 18) Life and death in Apple’s forbidden city Retrieved from The Guardian:theguardian.com/technology/2017/jun/18/foxconn-life-death-forbidden-city-longhua-suicide-apple-iphone-brian-merchant-one-device-extract

 

The Guardian is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated MIXED for factual reporting (03/21).

World Systems Theory (1970s) (impact of globalization)

Congo

Video: Keane, F. [BBC News] (2018, December 21) DR Congo's journey into chaos. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8di7d9jFPjU

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

 

Video: BBC News (2018, December 18) Congo: A land of riches. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XMB01NLX74

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


Cobalt Mining in Congo

Video: Patta, D. [CBS News] (2019, December 17) Top tech companies sued over child cobalt mining deaths in Congo. Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mB6ewWN0iZ8

CBS News is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

 

Article: Crawford, A. (2017, February 28) Meet Dorsen, 8, who mines cobalt to make your smartphone work. Retrieved from Sky News: https://news.sky.com/story/meet-dorsen-8-who-mines-cobalt-to-make-your-smartphone-work-10784120

 

Sky News is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

Structural Theory

African Continental Free Trade Area

Article: Mutahi, B. & Mudibo, Z. (2021, January 27) Africa's free-trade area: What difference will it make? Retrieved from BBC News, Nairobi: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-55334345

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


Nordic Social Outcomes in a Capitalist World

Article: McWhinney, J. (2020, March 1) The Nordic Model: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/100714/nordic-model-pros-and-cons.asp

Investopedia is a LEAST-BIASED source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

(Neo)colonialism

Chinese Development in Africa - The Belt and Road Initiative

Video: Lee, X. E. (2019, February 21) What is the Belt and Road Initiative?. Retrieved from CNBC News: https://www.cnbc.com/video/2019/02/21/what-is-the-belt-and-road-initiative.html

 

CNBC News is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated MOSTLY FACTUAL for factual reporting (03/21).

 


China's Huge Investment

Article: China makes soft-power play for Africa(2018, September 4) Retrieved from The Week: https://www.theweek.co.uk/96230/china-makes-soft-power-play-for-africa

 

The Week is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).


Africa Becoming Dependent on China

Article: Chinese investment in Africa could create national economies 'entirely dependent on China', say experts. (2018, May 15)  Retrieved from The Independent: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/china-africa-investment-dependent-economies-chinese-belt-road-a8352531.html

 

The Independent is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated MIXED for factual reporting (03/21).


Chinese African Land Grab and Debt Traps

Video: France24 (2018, September 3) Beijing's presence in Africa: a neo-colonial land grab setting up potential debt traps? Retrieved from YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hQ8janhulo

 

France24 is a LEAST-BIASED source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21)


New Infrastructure or Neocolonialism

Video: Ni, V. & Madowo, L. (2019, June 27) China's investment in Africa: Everything you need to know. Retrieved from BBC News: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/world-africa-48764301

 

The BBC is a LEFT-CENTRE source, rated HIGH for factual reporting (03/21).

Theories of poverty and development summary sheet

Use this document to organise your ideas. You only need one sheet for all the theories, but if you choose to print it out and fill it in by hand you might want to print on A3.

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